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What is the difference between CBD Tincture vs CBD Oil. Learn more here about the differences between two and how they can help you. Labeling of Cannabidiol Products: A Public Health Perspective 1 The Center for Medical Cannabis Education, Del Mar, California, USA. 2 Helfgott Research Institute, National University of

What Is The Difference Between CBD Tincture Vs Oil?

Tinctures are often used to administer CBD. Tinctures are a kind of CBD that is highly concentrated and popular. Discover more about using CBD tinctures, their dosages, and the medical advantages they provide.

CBD products are popular

Cbd is a chemical compound found in nearly everything—from chocolate to suntan lotion to pet items to nail polish and toothpicks—as cannabidiol or CBD.

The most popular methods of CBD consumption identified in a 2018 research published in Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research were 2,200 users. The most popular was CBD taken sublingually (under your tongue) as a tincture, liquid, or spray (2,094 ways).

Tinctures are CBD tinctures that are highly concentrated. One of the most frequent ways of sublingual administration with CBD tinctures is tinctures, which are extremely concentrated forms of CBD.

What is a CBD tincture and how does it differ from CBD oil? Here are some more things to think about before purchasing CBD tinctures.

What is CBD?

CBD is one of roughly 100 different cannabinoids found in the cannabis or marijuana plant. It’s present in the flowers and “buds” as well as other parts of the plant (but not the seeds). CBD, unlike its counterpart delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), does not make you high.

Hemp, a distant relative of the marijuana plant, is the most common source of CBD in the United States. Hemp may be cultivated as long as it has no more than 0.3% THC under the 2018 Farm Bill.

CBD tincture vs. CBD oil

In essence, tinctures are “some sort of extract that is placed under the tongue,” according to Kevin Boehnke, a research investigator at the University of Michigan’s Chronic Pain and Fatigue Research Center in Ann Arbor.

The majority of tinctures, which are created by soaking herbs in a liquid and then filtering them, are kept in a glass bottle with a dropper.Typically, herbal tinctures have been made from plant materials decocted in alcohol for many weeks. CBD is obtained from hemp flowers or buds by imbibing them in a liquid consisting of equal parts alcohol and water, resulting in a highly concentrated solution.

However, hemp tinctures can also be prepared from it by soaking it in a plant-based oil or another substance. (This is now the most popular method of CBD tincture production.)

Sweeteners, for example, may be added to the extremely concentrated CBD to make a finished product that does or does not include alcohol. Although the words “tincture” and “oil” are sometimes used interchangeably, they are not necessarily synonymous.

CBD oil can be manufactured from CBD extracted by one of several techniques, such as extraction or decarboxylation, and combined with a carrier substance like olive oil, sesame oil, or MCT oil (made from coconuts). According to Martin A. Lee, co-founder and director of Project CBD, a California nonprofit that promotes CBD research and author of Smoke Signals: A Social History of Marijuana–Medical, Recreational, and Scientific, tinctures are another choice for delivering CBD oil.

Herbal tinctures, which are often made with alcohol, are typically prepared using cannabis or CBD extracts. Tincture, on the other hand, is used to describe both cannabis medicines in carrier oils (olive oil, coconut oil) and those produced with alcohol. CBD oil is sometimes used interchangeably with the term “tincture,” which can refer to both oil-based and liquid CBD products.

A tincture is a highly concentrated herbal extract of CBD that may be more easily absorbed and acts more efficiently in the body, and should be used only a few drops at a time, regardless of the method.

How to use CBD tinctures

You should keep the tincture under your tongue for 90 seconds to two minutes to get the most out of a CBD tincture. If you take it straight down, the CBD has to pass through your digestive system, which takes longer to have an impact. Maintain the tincture under your tongue for 15 minutes to an hour, and you may expect a stronger effect after that—usually lasting 6-8 hours.

Tinctures may be able to assist with acute problems where you’re searching for rapid relief, according to Bonni Goldstein, MD, medical director and owner of Cannacenters, and author of Cannabis is Medicine: How Medical Cannabis and CBD Are Healing Everything from Anxiety to Chronic Pain.

Plus, a little can go a long way.

“It’s usually so concentrated that you only need a tiny, tiny quantity,” explains Boehnke. Tinctures, unlike CBD edibles such as CBD gummies or cookies, don’t include sugar.

Some CBD in tinctures is absorbed via the digestive system. Food in the mouth at the same time might aid in faster absorption.

“We advise people to eat something high in fat, like avocados or eggs, together with it,” says Dr. Goldstein. “There’s some evidence that individuals who take it in a fasted state have a little bit of delay in onset,” she adds.

Vaping is the fastest method of taking CBD, but tinctures are still a viable alternative. Vaping CBD, on the other hand, doesn’t last as long (usually just two to three hours) and is considered a riskier delivery technique due to unknown pollutants in the oil that may harm the lungs.

EVALI, or e-cigarette or vape product usage-related lung injury, has been connected to vaping. People who vaped THC from non-commercial sources, such as family, friends, or online dealers, were most likely to develop the condition.

CBD tinctures and dosing

Tinctures should have a clearly visible dropper (usually 0.5 or 1 milliliters) so you can properly calibrate dosages. Keep an eye on the amount of CBD in each dropperful. (This should be stated on the label.)

The next step is to determine what you require. Project CBD recommends a dosage of 2.5 to 5 milligrams, however this will vary based on your usage.

Researchers conducted a 2019 systematic review in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology that looked at roughly three dozen studies that evaluated a variety of CBD dosages (less than 1 to 50 mg per kilogram of body weight per day) for a number of diseases, including epilepsy and anxiety.

The researchers discovered that CBD studies with better results tended to use higher dosages. Regardless of why you’re taking CBD, experts advise starting low and going slow to minimize the risk of adverse effects.

What can you use CBD tinctures for?

CBD tinctures have been used for a variety of health issues, including anxiety and sleeplessness, but some people use them to maintain general health.

According to the 2018 poll, 62 percent of respondents used CBD to treat a medical problem, most commonly pain, anxiety, and depression. People have also reported using it for insomnia, headaches, seizures, discomfort, arthritis, and inflammatory problems.

People use CBD for a variety of purposes, however there isn’t yet scientific proof to support it. In fact, the majority of current research comes in the form of animal studies and anecdotal reports, according to Lee.

Dr. Goldstein feels that Epidiolex has the most evidence to support its use in treating seizure disorders. The only CBD-based medication licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is Epidiolex, which is used to treat rare forms of epilepsy in kids.

CBD has anti-pain and anti-inflammatory properties that may help people with arthritis, cancer, prediabetes, and eye injuries. This is still in the development stage and only applies to animal studies. CBD tinctures have received little study.

Types of products

Tinctures and other CBD products are available in three distinct varieties based on the components used: nTincturing involves combining a concentrated oil with a carrier solution to produce tinctures, which may be ingested for immediate relief or applied topically for localized pain.

  • Full-spectrum CBD: Cannabis sativa, including CBD and other minor traces of THC and terpenes, the plant components in hemp.
  • Broad-spectrum CBD: It’s a full-spectrum product with no THC, as the name implies. : Canna Care released its first-ever topical CBD oil, which is 100% pure cannabidiol and only contains CBD. Products that are full- or broad-spectrum with the “entourage effect” may have a more powerful impact as they combine synergistically, according to Lee.
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CBD legal?

CBD is legal in 36 states (and counting) throughout the United States, and it’s expected to be embraced by even more states as time goes on. CBD is now accessible legally in many of these regions.

However, CBD and all of its derivatives, including marijuana, are still classified as Schedule I controlled substances by the Drug Enforcement Administration, a federal organization. Meanwhile, the FDA considers CBD to be a supplement ingredient, which implies that CBD product regulation is minimal and quality is inconsistent.

Are CBD tinctures safe?

CBD is not harmful in and of itself, provided you obtain a high-quality product. There’s the chance that CBD, especially at excessive dosages (hundreds or thousands of milligrams), might trigger interactions with other drugs. Check with your doctor and the National Library of Medicine’s list of potential drug interactions before using any product.

CBD has been shown to have side effects such as tiredness, hunger loss, dry mouth, and nausea in some studies, while other research suggests otherwise. There’s little evidence so far regarding the effects of long-term CBD usage in tinctures or any other form. If you don’t choose products carefully, you could get one with contaminants or that doesn’t contain the amount of CBD stated on the label.

How to buy CBD tinctures

If you live in a state where CBD is legal, work with a health-care professional or a licensed dispensary that adheres to specific criteria. If you can’t do that, follow these guidelines when buying CBD:

Labeling of Cannabidiol Products: A Public Health Perspective

1 The Center for Medical Cannabis Education, Del Mar, California, USA.

2 Helfgott Research Institute, National University of Natural Medicine (NUNM), Portland, Oregon, USA.

Douglas MacKay

3 Scientific and Regulatory Affairs, CV Sciences, Inc., San Diego, California, USA.

William Dolphin

4 Communications Department, Americans for Safe Access, Washington, District of Columbia, USA.

5 Graduate School of Education and College of Arts and Sciences, University of Redlands, Redlands, California, USA.

2 Helfgott Research Institute, National University of Natural Medicine (NUNM), Portland, Oregon, USA.

5 Graduate School of Education and College of Arts and Sciences, University of Redlands, Redlands, California, USA.

* Address correspondence to: Jamie Corroon, ND, MPH, The Center for Medical Cannabis Education, 428 8th Street, Del Mar, CA 92014, USA [email protected]

Abstract

Introduction: Interest in the therapeutic use of cannabidiol (CBD) has reached a fever-pitch in recent months, as CBD-containing products appear everywhere from online retailers to grocery stores and gas stations. The widespread availability of hemp-derived CBD products is confounding given that CBD is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug, and thus precluded from being added to food and beverages, or included in dietary supplements. The use by manufacturers of disease-related claims on marketing materials and product labels, along with the federal legalization of hemp in December 2018, has created political pressure on FDA to promulgate regulations.

Conclusions: Accurate and informative labeling of hemp and hemp-derived CBD products is an important public health issue. FDA-regulated product labels are considered an essential tool for protecting consumers and enabling informed decision-making. Untruthful or unsubstantiated health-related claims, and unallowed Drug Claims, in marketing materials and on labels of CBD products may create harm by enticing consumers to forgo more evidence-based medical interventions. Furthermore, missing or inaccurate labeling of the amount of CBD, delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and potentially harmful contaminants such as pesticides, naturally-occurring yeast and mold or heavy metals may result in harm and/or lack of efficacy. Manufacturers of these products may reasonably be expected to understand and adhere to FDA regulations for labeling and marketing of food, dietary supplements and drugs, both over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription, even though FDA has interpreted federal law as excluding them from these categories. As manufacturers prepare for forthcoming regulations, a better understanding of the basic framework for FDA labeling and marketing regulations for food, dietary supplements and drugs is warranted.

Background

Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of more than a hundred cannabinoids found in Cannabis sativa L., a plant more well-known colloquially as marijuana or hemp. 1 CBD was first isolated in 1940 and characterized structurally in 1963. 2,3 Interest in the therapeutic use of CBD has reached a fever-pitch in recent months, as CBD-containing products appear everywhere, from online retailers to grocery stores and gas stations.

Widespread availability of hemp and hemp-derived CBD products is confounding, given the position of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which maintains that CBD is an approved drug, 4 and thus precluded from being added to food and beverages, or included in dietary supplements. 5 To date, FDA enforcement has been limited to sending warning letters to manufacturers, largely for mislabeling or misbranding their products as unapproved new drugs, or for making claims that a product is indented to treat a disease condition on labels and marketing materials (FDA considers all sales materials, including consumer testimonials used in marketing, to be extensions of the label). 6–8 Political pressure on FDA is mounting. The agency had initially indicated it would expedite its deliberations regarding regulation of hemp-derived CBD products, 9 however, a late 2019 update promised only to inform stakeholders “as quickly as possible.” 10

The public health imperative

Accurate and informative labeling of CBD products is an important public health issue. Product labels, and associated marketing materials, provide vital information about that product’s composition and ingredients, as well as the potential risks and benefits of use. Unsubstantiated health-related claims, and unallowed drug claims, on labels of CBD products may create harm by enticing consumers to forgo more evidence-based medical interventions. In addition, absence of disclosure of major food allergens or solvents or excipients, if present, would constitute misbranding; and inaccurate labeling of the amount of CBD, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), or potentially harmful contaminants such as pesticides, naturally occurring yeast and mold, or heavy metals may result in harm and/or lack of efficacy.

Manufacturers of hemp and hemp-derived CBD products intended to be sold and marketed as food or dietary supplements may reasonably be expected to understand and adhere to FDA regulations for labeling and marketing of such products, even though FDA has interpreted federal law as excluding them from these categories. Similarly, manufacturers of products intended to be sold and marketed as drugs must comply with a different, more rigorous, set of FDA regulations that are specific to that category.

What’s in a Label?

In the United States, the label of FDA-regulated products, which include food, beverages, dietary supplements, drugs, and more, represents the product’s identity card. Product labels provide important information about that product’s composition and ingredients, as well as the potential risks and benefits of use. FDA-regulated product labels are considered an important tool for protecting consumers and enabling informed decision-making. 11

Widespread mislabeling of hemp and Cannabis products has been documented by both independent researchers and the FDA and other organizations. 12,13 Underlabeling and overlabeling of both CBD and THC content have been reported. The actual contents of available products can vary considerably from what are disclosed on the label; sometimes no CBD is present at all. Inadequate label information also poses risks of unintended, unwitting, or overconsumption of THC, the primary intoxicating compound in Cannabis, as well as potentially harmful contaminants.

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Identity and Composition

Identity

FDA regulations mandate that food, dietary supplements, and drugs prominently display a “statement of identity” as one of the dominant features of the principal display panel of the label. This descriptive statement is used to identify the product (e.g., “Crackers,” “Cereal,” “Herbal Supplement”) and allow consumers to easily interpret its intended use (e.g., food for nourishment, a dietary supplement to supplement the diet, or a drug for therapeutic purposes). A “statement of identity” is also important for hemp-derived CBD products. While the statement “Dietary Supplement” is required for products intended to supplement the diet, statements that identify other forms of CBD products, such as “Vape cartridge,” or “Ointment,” may help consumers more easily identify products that are not intended to supplement the diet.

Composition

Declarations related to the principal constituents of a food, dietary supplement, or drug are made within FDA-regulated Fact Panels. Most FDA product category requires a Fact Panel (i.e., Nutrition Facts, Supplement Facts, and Drug Facts) on the label to convey the information required for the safe, informed use of the product. For food and dietary supplements, the “Serving Size” and the “Servings Per Container” must also be stated within the Fact Panel. For prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, the active ingredients per dosing unit (e.g., tablet, capsule, and packet) and adequate directions for use are stated in the Drug Fact panel. The presence of Fact Panels on labels implies the product is in compliance with all FDA requirements for the corresponding category (i.e., food, dietary supplement, or drug).

CBD and THC content per serving is often intentionally absent from the label of hemp-derived CBD products marketed as dietary supplements. In the case of CBD, this omission is often intended to reduce the risk of enforcement actions by FDA or other federal agencies. In the case of THC, it may be due to the presumption that levels are low enough to be nonpsychoactive.

The presence of trace amounts of THC in hemp-derived CBD products is not unlike the presence of trace amounts of alcohol in certain beverages. For example, Kombucha products (i.e., fermented tea beverages) containing 0.5% or less alcohol by volume are not deemed alcohol beverages and not subject to Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau regulations ( Table 1 ). 14

Table 1.

Allowable Amounts of Selected Ingredients

Labeling claim Legal threshold
Hemp 0.3% dry weight THC
Kombucha and N/A beer 0.5% ABV
No calorie 5 calories per serving
Fat free 0.5 g per serving
Sodium free, salt free 5 mg per serving
Sugar free 1.0 g per serving

The 2018 Farm Bill defines hemp as the plant Cannabis with a THC concentration of not more than 0.3% by dry weight. The Farm Bill does not define a level that applies to finished consumer products. However, the Farm Bill explicitly maintains FDA’s authority to determine a safe level for consumer products that it regulates such as foods, dietary supplements, cosmetics, and drugs.

ABV, alcohol by volume; THC, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol; FDA, Food and Drug Administration.

FDA allows “free from” claims for food products that contain trace amounts of sodium, fat, and sugar. However, hemp-derived CBD products should not carry a “THC-free” or similar claim until a specific legal threshold has been established. At least one consumer lawsuit has been filed based on a presumably faulty “THC-free” claim. 15 Similarly, if manufacturers use the term “Broad Spectrum” to suggest that a product is free of THC, then that needs to be defined in terms of an exact quantity and a specific analytical method.

Health-Related Claims on the Label

Health-related label claims are important because they communicate to consumers a given product’s intended use, potential benefits and harms, and anticipated effects. FDA guidelines describe four categories of allowable health-related claims on labels of food, dietary supplements, and drugs. These include the following: (1) Nutrient Content claims; (2) Structure/Function claims; (3) Health claims; and (4) Disease claims. Each category of claims requires a certain level of evidence for substantiation of the claim that is in accordance with FDA regulations.

FDA Nutrient Content Claims

Nutrient Content claims simply characterize the level of a nutrient in a food, food component, or dietary ingredient, using terms such as free, high, and low (e.g., “low-calorie,” “high-fiber,” “fat-free”). Claims that use these terms are only allowed for nutrients with established Daily Values (i.e., Reference Daily Intakes or Dietary Reference Value). Nutrient Content claims can also compare the level of a nutrient in a food to that of another food, using terms such as more, reduced, and light (e.g., “reduced-sodium,” “more fiber,” “light” [referring to reduced fat]). 16 The use of Nutrient Content claims is grounded in nutrition science to avoid arbitrary use of these terms and to help consumers accurately identify and compare the nutritional value of foods.

The use of terms such as free, high, and low, while currently prohibited, may be helpful for hemp-derived CBD products when referring to biologically active compounds such as phytocannabinoids (e.g., “high in CBD,” “THC free”). Standardized label terminology will reduce misuse of descriptive terms on labels and facilitate consistent communication to consumers. Industry stakeholders would benefit from engaging in an open process to reach consensus on harmonized constituent thresholds, as well as terminology for characterizing the composition of these products. Ultimately, appropriate terminology and thresholds should be negotiated with FDA and adopted by industry before being used in marketing.

FDA Structure/Function Claims

Structure/Function claims describe the role of a food or dietary ingredient in terms of its effect on the normal structure or function of the human body (e.g., “calcium builds strong bones,” “fiber maintains bowel regularity”). Labels of foods and dietary supplements, as well as drugs, can display Structure/Function claims. Structure/Function claims for conventional foods are limited to physical attributes such as taste, aroma, or nutritive value (e.g., beef provides iron to support hemoglobin levels). For dietary supplements, Structure/Function claims may include non-nutritive support (e.g., supports memory and focus), general well-being, and claims related to nutrient deficiencies (e.g., vitamin C prevents scurvy). Structure/Function claims do not require premarket approval by FDA; however, the manufacturer must have substantiation that the claim is truthful and not misleading. A notification with the text of the claim must be submitted to FDA no later than 30 days after marketing the product. 17

Claims related to a product’s effect on normal function may help set expectations for consumers of hemp-derived CBD products. Nondisease-oriented claims (e.g., promotes a restful sleep or fosters stress resilience) can be supported with the appropriate scientific evidence, if available. Manufacturers should avoid referring to specific disease states (e.g., insomnia or anxiety), and instead use appropriate terminology that describes the anticipated effect for most users. This framework for claims making would encourage marketers to conduct research on unique cultivars, formulations, and delivery technologies to determine if, in fact, different products lead to different effects.

It should be noted that the use of Structure/Function-type claims presents a risk of misinterpretation by consumers and misuse by manufacturers. The current use of Structure/Function claims for food and dietary supplements has been criticized because consumers may be confused and interpret a nondisease-oriented claim such as “promotes a restful sleep” as a therapeutic claim for a sleep disorder. 18

FDA Health Claims and Drug Claims

Health claims and Qualified Health claims (Health claims) describe the relationship between a food or dietary ingredient and reduced risk of a disease or health-related condition (e.g., “adequate calcium throughout life may reduce the risk of osteoporosis”). Health claims pronounce disease risk reduction and therefore require FDA preauthorization and a higher level of substantiation. Alternatively, they may be based on an authoritative statement of the National Academy of Sciences, or a similar scientific body within the U.S. government that has responsibility for public health protection or nutrition research. When a product bears a label claim that states or implies the product is useful in diagnosing, curing, mitigating, treating, or preventing a disease, that claim is considered a drug claim and designates that product as a drug according to the FDA. 19

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Drug claims for prescription and OTC drugs are roughly analogous to Health claims for nondrugs but allow for statements beyond risk reduction (i.e., diagnosing, curing, mitigating, treating, or preventing). These claims are product-specific and subject to the most rigorous FDA premarket approval process, requiring both preclinical and clinical trials, including multiple phase 1–4 clinical trials. Results of these trials lead to clearly established indications and contraindications for use of the drug in specific diseased populations. 19

FDA regulations prohibit any product that has not received premarket approval as a drug from making a Drug claim on its label or in marketing materials. Epidiolex TM , an FDA-approved prescription form of CBD, can be marketed with Drug claims. Hemp-derived CBD products cannot.

Multiple manufacturers in the emerging CBD industry have made marketing statements that qualify as Health or Drug claims ( Table 2 ). FDA has delivered cease-and-desist letters to more than 40 companies since 2015—the number more than tripled to 22 in 2019—for making such claims about their CBD products in labeling, including claims that they treat, or even cure, Alzheimer’s disease, opioid withdrawal, pain, and anxiety. 20

Table 2.

Selected Examples of Labeling Claims Cited by Food and Drug Administration in Warning Letters

Company Location of claim Claim
Curale af, Inc. Webpage “CBD can successfully reduce anxiety symptoms, both alone and in conjunction with other treatments.”
Advanced Spine and Pain, LLC (d/b/a Relievus) Facebook “Cannabidiol Fights Against Cancer CBD and other chemicals found in Cannabis have an anti-tumor effect and could be used to improve standard treatments. Please visit our website for more information!
Nutra Pure, LLC Webpage “Cannabidiol (CBD) Treats Neuropsychiatric Disorders”
PotNetwork Holdings, Inc. Webpage “Interestingly, however, in some lab studies, CBD has also shown the ability to kill cancer cells directly without the help of our immune system.”
Green Roads of Florida, LLC Webpage “[CBD] has antipsychotic properties, which makes it very useful for treating bipolar disorder.”
Natural Alchemist Alurent, Inc. Webpage “I was pleasantly surprised to find that CBD helped my arthritis…I have shared with my son and he states he is a big believer in CBD for. .. TBI [traumatic brain injury] after being acquainted with military personnel who have tried it.”
Dose of nature Facebook “CBD May Reverse Brain Deficits in Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s”

To underscore the importance of FDA preapproval of all Drug claims, FDA requires labels of dietary supplements that make any claims to include a disclaimer which states that the FDA has not evaluated the claim(s) and that the product “is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.” 21

Conclusion

Accurate and informative labeling of hemp and hemp-derived CBD products is an important public health issue. Untruthful or unsubstantiated health-related claims, and unallowed Drug claims, in marketing materials and labels of CBD products may create harm by enticing consumers to forgo more evidence-based medical interventions. Furthermore, missing or inaccurate labeling of the amount of CBD, THC, and potentially harmful contaminants such as pesticides, naturally occurring yeast and mold, or heavy metals may result in harm and/or lack of efficacy. Manufacturers of these products may reasonably be expected to understand and adhere to FDA regulations for labeling and marketing of food, dietary supplements, and drugs, both OTC and prescription, even though FDA has interpreted federal law as excluding them from those categories. As manufacturers prepare for forthcoming regulations, a better understanding of the basic framework for FDA labeling and marketing regulations for food, dietary supplements, and drugs is warranted.

Authors’ Contributions

Design, research, and article writing, oversight—J.C. Design, research, and article writing—D.M. Research and article writing—W.D.

Abbreviations Used

ABV alcohol by volume
CBD cannabidiol
FDA Food and Drug Administration
OTC over-the-counter
THC delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol

Author Disclosure Statement

J.C., ND, MPH, is the Medical Director at The Center for Medical Cannabis Education, a for-profit clinical and consulting entity. D.M., ND, has no conflicts to disclose. W.D., MA, is a paid consultant for Americans for Safe Access Foundation, a 501(c)3 nonprofit educational organization.

Funding Information

No funding was provided for this article.

Cite this article as: Corroon J, MacKay D, Dolphin W (2020) Labeling of cannabidiol products: a public health perspective, Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research 5:4, 274–278, DOI: 10.1089/can.2019.0101.

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