Cannabidiol (CBD) is a chemical compound whose largest concentration can be found in hemp , a close relative of marijuana – the two come from the same mother plant (Cannabis Sativa L.). CBD is non-intoxicating ; in other words, CBD doesn’t make people feel high , but it allows them to draw a myriad of health benefits from this particular cannabinoid.
CBD stimulates the endocannabinoid system to produce more of its own cannabinoids and slows their breakdown. [ 2 ] Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), on the other hand, binds to CB1 and CB2 receptors, activating them and thus changing a person’s thinking, memory, pleasure, and pain perception, and concentration. These effects contribute to what we describe as a marijuana high.
Why Is CBD Different From THC and Other Cannabinoids?
Below, we list some of the documented neurological effects of CBD oil that may help you put an end to your ailments.
The orphan receptor has got its name because scientists are still unsure if it belongs to a larger receptor family. Also called GPR55 , the orphan receptor is responsible for regulating blood pressure, bone density, and bone reabsorption .
Now, let’s sum up some of the most noteworthy therapeutic properties of CBD.
The treat didn’t contain THC, the component of marijuana that’s responsible for getting you high. Instead, it was made with cannabidiol, or CBD, a nonpsychoactive compound in cannabis that is surging in popularity.
CBD does appear to have some limited clinical uses — at least in very high doses. Last summer, the FDA approved the CBD-based drug Epidiolex, which is used to treat seizures.
These days, CBD is everywhere. But its legality may depend on several factors, including the type of plant it comes from.
Scientists believe CBD could play a role in helping to produce many of marijuana’s therapeutic effects, from relieving pain to curbing inflammation. But overall, the research on cannabis itself is early, it’s too soon to say for sure whether CBD is useful for most people, or for our furry friends.
In marijuana plants, CBD exists alongside THC, the ingredient that’s believed to produce most of cannabis’ commonly known effects, including its characteristic high.
In February, that happened for the first time. Using an increasingly popular approach known as synthetic biology, researchers at the University of California at Berkeley created the precursors to the cannabis compounds CBD and THC and then made the compounds themselves — no farm or field required.
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Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that the non-intoxicating cannabinoid compound cannabidiol (CBD) may have antipsychotic and anxiolytic properties, and thus may be a promising new agent in the treatment of psychotic and anxiety disorders. However, the neurobiological substrates underlying the potential therapeutic effects of CBD are still unclear. The aim of this systematic review is to provide a detailed and up-to-date systematic literature overview of neuroimaging studies that investigated the acute impact of CBD on human brain function. Methods: Papers published until May 2020 were included from PubMed following a comprehensive search strategy and pre-determined set of criteria for article selection. We included studies that examined the effects of CBD on brain function of healthy volunteers and individuals diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder, comprising both the effects of CBD alone as well as in direct comparison to those induced by ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive component of Cannabis. Results: One-ninety four studies were identified, of which 17 met inclusion criteria. All studies investigated the acute effects of CBD on brain function during resting state or in the context of cognitive tasks. In healthy volunteers, acute CBD enhanced fronto-striatal resting state connectivity, both compared to placebo and THC. Furthermore, CBD modulated brain activity and had opposite effects when compared to THC following task-specific patterns during various cognitive paradigms, such as emotional processing (fronto-temporal), verbal memory (fronto-striatal), response inhibition (fronto-limbic-striatal), and auditory/visual processing (temporo-occipital). In individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis and patients with established psychosis, acute CBD showed intermediate brain activity compared to placebo and healthy controls during cognitive task performance. CBD modulated resting limbic activity in subjects with anxiety and metabolite levels in patients with autism spectrum disorders. Conclusion: Neuroimaging studies have shown that acute CBD induces significant alterations in brain activity and connectivity patterns during resting state and performance of cognitive tasks in both healthy volunteers and patients with a psychiatric disorder. This included modulation of functional networks relevant for psychiatric disorders, possibly reflecting CBD’s therapeutic effects. Future studies should consider replication of findings and enlarge the inclusion of psychiatric patients, combining longer-term CBD treatment with neuroimaging assessments.
Keywords: Cannabis (marijuana); cannabidiol; delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol; functional MRI; neuroimaging.
Conflict of interest statement
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.